HEALTHY BRAIN TISSUE
T cells transiently scan the surfaces of APCs but don’t recognize their specific antigen and move on. As a result, no immune response is initiated.
PROGRESSIVE MS: CHRONIC LESION
Inflammatory T cells in a stable, long-lasting aggregate release inflammatory mediators (dotted arrows) that activate macrophages. Macrophages at the lesion edge continuously degrade myelin. Existing MS therapies do not directly address this pathology.
TREG CELL THERAPY FOR PROGRESSIVE MS
A TCR enables Treg activation through antigen-dependent APC interaction. Activated Tregs release factors (green arrows) that suppress lymphoid aggregates, block new lymphocytes and inhibit macrophages. Tregs also produce factors that may promote myelin repair.