HEALTHY BRAIN TISSUE
T cells transiently scan the surfaces of APCs but don’t recognize their specific antigen and move on. As a result, no immune response is initiated.
PROGRESSIVE MS: CHRONIC LESION
Inflammatory T cells in a stable, long-lasting aggregate release inflammatory mediators (dotted arrows) that activate macrophages. Macrophages at the lesion edge continuously degrade myelin. Existing MS therapies do not directly address this pathology.
TREG CELL THERAPY FOR PROGRESSIVE MS
A TCR enables Treg activation through antigen-dependent APC interaction. Activated Tregs release factors (green arrows) that suppress lymphoid aggregates, block new lymphocytes and inhibit macrophages. Tregs also produce factors that may promote myelin repair.
Type 1 Diabetes
Modulating T cells has been clinically demonstrated to affect disease progression in patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D). Our T1D program will treat patients with the genetic HLA haplotype DR3-DQ2 (over half of patients) who are early in autoimmune pathogenesis, ultimately aiming to prevent the onset of symptomatic disease and insulin dependence.
Inclusion Body Myositis
Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is a debilitating disease characterized by inflammation that leads to muscle damage and weakness. Today, there are no therapies. Because Tregs play a role in muscle regeneration, we believe Treg cell therapies have the potential to address the unique pathogenic process in IBM. Our Treg cell therapy will treat patients with the genetic HLA haplotype DR3, an estimated 75% of patients.